How Do We Get Our Skin Colour?
Skin covers our entire, but its colour varies from person to person. Skin cells and their allies such as hair, sweat, and oil glands from a living being’s first line of defence from the environment. Our skin consists of three main layers; epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis. Each of these layers is a distinct community of cells and are assigned with different tasks.
To understand how our skin gets its colour, we need to focus on the outermost layer, the epidermis and two essential cell types; keratinocytes & melanocytes. The keratinocytes are the cells which form the surface of the skin and are on the frontline for taking insults from the environment. Deeper down into the epidermis and right at the base of the layer, we find the melanocytes. These star-shaped cells produce the most crucial pigment called melanin.
Melanin is produced inside of what looks likes a sphere inside the melanocytes which are called as the melanosomes. Chemical reactions inside these melanosomes turn the amino acid tyrosine into melanin. The proportion of the two primary forms of melanin produced are reddish-yellow type versus the black-brown type.
The total number of melanosomes in each melanocyte and the total number of melanosomes present in the epidermis vary from person to person and is the primary parameter that determines their skin colour. Melanosomes are the melanin factories inside the melanocytes. For the melanin to carry out its task, the melanosomes need to be transported to the keratinocytes via the melanocytes long projections.
Inside the keratinocytes, some melanosomes form a cap around the cell nucleus. The melanin inside the melanosomes absorbs the ultraviolet energy from the sunlight, thus reducing the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the nucleus and in particular, the DNA inside the nucleus. Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in the DNA that eventually leads lead to cancer. When Ultraviolet radiation increases, it increases the melanin production in our body. As a result, more melanosomes are delivered to the keratinocytes.
Most people can adjust to greater exposure to the sun by turning up the melanin production and tanning. But it is our genetic inheritance determines both the baseline colour of our skin and how much it can tan. There is a number of reasons that can lead to skin discolouration. Therefore, let’s take a look at a few of the common causes that lead to the discolouration of the skin
Common Causes Of Skin Discoloration
Skin pigmentation or hyperpigmentation is a term used to describe dark spots or patches on the skin. There are different types of pigmentations or skin concerns that an individual might face. Whenever people go dark, they believe that the only reason behind that is sunlight or tanning. As a result, people start using several products, especially sunscreens, face scrubs, and other cosmetics, to reverse the effects.
However, their tan or discolouration doesn’t seem to wear off despite using a number of products. The melanin produced by the melanocytes is evenly distributed within the skin and gives all of us the colour that we usually possess. Darkening of the skin occurs due to many factors, both external as well as internal at any time in our lives. Skin Discoloration often begins with the unevenness in the skin tone, a little bit of patchy dark spots, and an alternation in the overall texture of the skin such that the skin gets a bit rougher
The most common external cause of skin discolouration or pigmentation is the ultraviolet radiation or sunlight, and one of the most typical internal reasons is hormones, mostly seen in cases of women. Any of these factors can increase the pigment cells or activate the cells to produce more melanin.
Common Types Of Skin Discoloration
There are many common types of skin discolouration or skin pigmentation such as freckles, dark spots, melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation etc. All these often cause a cosmetic problem and hence require treatment.
Freckles are a typical common response to sunlight, and they appear as light brown spots on the face and on the exposed parts of the body. They are often seen in fair-skinned individuals and that too from a very young age. Sunscreening habits can effectively prevent these freckles
Lentigines are dark spots and are often seen as we grow older after the ages of 40. Melasma is the kind of pigment which shows up most commonly on the cheeks in the form of brownish or greyish brown patches, which are sharply defined. They can also come upon the forehead and the chin.
Two main factors causing melasma are sunlight and hormones, and it is more common in women. Very often, melasma appears either, during, or post-pregnancy. Often we find that pigmentation is left behind after we develop boils or other infections such eczemas and other allergies, injuries etc. on the skin and this is something which is termed as Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH).
PIH gets left behind because there is some inflammation in that part of the skin. There are certain cosmetics, perfumes, and other allergens which can on their own go dark patches on the skin and is called as pigmented contact dermatitis. Another common and the most often found cause of patchy pigmentation is ageing, and this is because of the effect of the UV rays or direct and prolonged exposure to sunlight.
Another form of skin discolouration is the dark circles which are the dark patches that appear below our eyes and are dependent on several factors such as age, stress, allergies. Dry skin can aggravate the appearance of dark circles beneath the eyes. The major problem with dark circles is that they appear beneath the eyes which make us look dull and tired.
Though there are several reasons and causes behind discolouration, there are several creams and serums available in the market which help you find solutions to these problems. With the rapid rise in the field of medical sciences, it is now becoming easier to find answers to each and every prevailing problem
Therefore, let’s take a look at five best skin brightening creams that will help you get rid of your skin discolouration
5 Best Skin Whitening Creams For Face And Body
Meladerm is a cream made by Civant skincare. This formulation does not require a prescription, unlike compounded topical formulations. Skincare actives include Retinol, Vitamin B3 or niacinamide, Vitamin E, as well as ascorbic acid / Vitamin C. Other actives include botanicals, including liquorice, and berry extracts. These root and plant extracts improve pigmentation by reducing skin inflammation as well as inhibiting Tyrosinase. Other pigment correctors present in Meladerm include kojic and citric acid. Free from hydroquinone, parabens and artificial fragrance.
Your dermatologist may cycle Meladerm with other topicals including hydroquinone, retinoids and other skincare actives. Application frequency will depend on the diagnosis, your treatment protocol, as well as variables such as skin sensitivity.
- Amaira Skin Lightening Serum
Amaira, intimate skin lightening serum, has quickly gained recognition as the #1 bleaching cream for your private areas such as anus, vagina, nipples, penis, scrotum and underarms.
Amaira Skin Lightening Serum is made with natural ingredients, including:
- Glycolic Acid
- Kojic acid
- Licorice Extract
- Mulberry Extract
- Orchid Extract
- Bearberry Extract
Safe for all types of skin No Hydroquinone, harsh chemicals, parabens or perfumes Made with natural plant-based ingredients
Zeta White is a skin lightening system made up of 3 products.
- Face lightening wash (50ml)
- Lightening moisturiser (30ml)
- Lightening night cream (30ml)
All products are 100% natural, made in the UK and safe for all skin types, both male or female. Zeta White offers a safe alternative to such methods, as it contains three gentle, organic products which can be used regularly to improve the skin tone and lighten critical areas of the body. The Zeta White Cream works around the clock with a daily moisturiser, cleanser and different night cream to continuously work on lightening the skin.
- Illuminatural 6i
Illuminatural 6i is a skin lightening medication that comes with natural FDA-approved ingredients which have been used for centuries to reverse the effects of hyperpigmentation. When the skin is injured, it produces an excess amount of melanin in the area as the body repairs the damage. This leads to the development of dark spots like acne scars or sunspots. Hyperpigmentation may also occur due to age (liver spots), genetics (freckles) or disease (melisma). This natural beauty product contains active skin lighteners, sun filters, anti-inflammatories, vitamins, anti-oxidants, and a host of other substances that erases dark spots, evens skin tone and brightens skin.
The Skinception Illuminatural 6i can help reduce:
- Age spots
- Amoils H-Age Spot Formula
H-Age Spot formula is a product specifically designed by the San Diego based company, Amoils. H – Scars formula is generally an oil which includes all of the natural ingredients rather than harmful chemicals. It has no added chemicals or any other additive that can harm your skin. Instead, the H-Age Spot Formula contains all-natural ingredients such as Thuja occidentalis. It has all the essential oils required to remove all traces of skin ailment such as dark spots, pigmentation.
Twice daily application of the H-Age Spot formula gives visible results within a period of 4 weeks. As it consists of all the natural ingredients, the H-Age Spot actively works to provide you with clear and radiant skin, removes any skin ailment, and leaves you with an even skin tone. The product is deviced for all skin types
Use the H-Age Spot formula in the morning after waking and before going to bed at night. Ensure that you use a cleanser first to clean your face before applying H-Age Spot Formula thoroughly.